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THE GREAT MOUNTAINS OF THE NORTH INDIA


Published on: 11/30/2020 4:20:51 AM

THE GREAT MOUNTAINS OF THE NORTH

  • The Himalayas, the highest mountain wall of the world, are situated on the northern boundary of India like arc.
  • From West to East the Himalayas are 2500 km long. The average breadth of the Himalayas is between 250 to 400 km. It started from Nanga Parbat (Western anchor) to Namcha Barwa (Eastern anchor).
  • Mount Everest, the highest peak in the world, lies in these mountains in Nepal.
  • The Himalayas consist of three parallel mountain ranges: (1) The Greater Himalayas (2) The Lesser Himalayas (3) The Outer Himalayas.
  • The Greater Himalayas: It is also called Himadari. This is the loftiest among the three ranges of the Himalayas. The important mountain peaks of the this range are- Mount Everest (8848 m), Kanchenjunga (8598 m), Makalu (8481 m), Dhaulagiri (8172 m), Nanga Parbat (8126 m), Annapurna (8076 m), Nanda Devi (7817 m), Badrinath, Kedarnath, and Nandakot.
  • The Lesser Himalayas: It is also called Himachal Himalayas. It lies south of the Greater Himalayas. This ranges 60 to 80 km wide and its average height ranges between 3500 to 4500 meters. There are several small ranges under Lesser Himalayas- Pir Panjal Range (It extends from the Jhelum to the Beas rivers in Kashmir); Dhauladhar Range (The place where Alakananda river crosses the Great Himalayas near Badrinath, a range comes out from there towards the west in the south of the main range); Nag Tibba Range (The place where the river Kali Gandak near Dhaulagiri peak passes through the Great Himalayas, range comes out from there towards the west); and Mahabharata Range (Its extension is in Nepal). 
  • The Outer Himalayas: It is also called Shiwaliks. This is the southernmost and the third parallel range of the Himalayas with and average height 900 to 1200 meters. Its breadth is only 10 to 50 km. It extends from Potwar basin of Punjab in the west to the Kosi River in the east.

IMPORTANT MOUNTAIN PASSES IN INDIA

Name of mountain passes

Description

Zoji La (Pass)

It is in the Zaskar range of Jammu & Kashmir. The road route from Srinagar to Leh goes through this pass. It has been created by the Indus River.

Banihal Pass

It is in Jammu & Kashmir. The National Highway NO.1 A that links Srinagar to Jammu goes through it. It has been created by the Indus River.

Shipki La (Pass)

It is in Himachal Pradesh. The road from Shimla to Tibet goes through this pass. The Satluj River flows through this pass.

Bara-Lacha Pass

It is also in Himachal Pradesh. It links Mandi and Leh by road.

Rohtang Pass

It is also in Himachal Pradesh. It cuts through the Pir Panjal range. It links Manali and Leh by road.

Mana Pass

It is in Uttarakhand. The land route to the Kailash and the Manasarovar passes through it.

Niti Pass

It is also in Uttarakhand. The road to the Kailash and the Manasarovar passes through it.

Nathu La (Pass)

It is in Sikkim. It gives way to Tibet from Darjeeling and Chumbi valley.

Jalep La (Pass)

It is also in Sikkim and gives way to Bhutan.  The Tista River has created this pass.

 

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