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FOREST AND NATURAL VEGETATION


Published on: 11/30/2020 4:22:00 AM

NATURAL VEGETATION

India is land of various regions; varied kinds of natural vegetation have developed here. It can be said that the natural vegetation of India follows rainfalls. The natural vegetation can be classified into eight groups: Tropical Evergreen Vegetation; Tropical Moist Deciduous Vegetation; Tropical Dry Deciduous; Desert or Semi-Arid Vegetation; Mangrove Vegetation; Moist Subtropical Montane Vegetation; Moist Temperate Montane Vegetation; and Himalayan Vegetation.

Vegetation

Distribution

Characteristics

Tropical Evergreen Vegetation

  • North-eastern India, Western slope of the Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar islands
  • Trees are very close and evergreen because of heavy rainfall. They are 30-60 m in height and their wood is very hard.
  • Important Trees: Rubber, Mahogany, Ebony, Iron-wood, Palms, Bamboos, Canes, Cinchona, Rosewood etc.

Tropical Moist Deciduous Vegetation

  • Eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, Terai regions of the Himalayas, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh etc.
  • During dry summer season, trees shed their leaves because of decrease I n humanity so that they can maintain their humidity. The average height of the trees is 20-40 m.
  • Important Trees: Teak, Sal, Sandalwood, Mulberry, Mahua, Amla, Shisham etc.

Tropical Dry Deciduous

  • Eastern Rajasthan, Northern Gujarat, Western Madhya Pradesh, South-Western Uttar Pradesh, Southern Punjab, Haryana and the rain-shadow area of the Western Ghats.
  • Trees are generally 6-9 m in height. The tree roots go deep so that they could get water from depth.
  • The trees of this region have thick bark. Leaves are also thick and thorny so that the rate of transpiration could lessen.
  • Important Trees: Mahua, Babul, Tendu, Khai, plum, Banyan, Peepal etc.

Desert or Semi-Arid Vegetation

  • Western Rajasthan, Northern Gujarat and the rain-shadow region of the Western Ghats
  • The trees are in the forms of shrubs. Generally their maximum height is up to 6 m.
  • The trees have deep roots, thick and thorny leaves.
  • Important Trees: Palm, Cactus, Babul etc.

Mangrove Vegetation

  • Ganga-Brahmaputra delta, deltaic regions of the river Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari, Kaveri. Some parts of and the eastern and the western coast.
  • This type of the vegetation is found in the sea-coast and the lower deltaic regions.
  • Important Trees: Mangrove, Coconut, Sundari, Palm, Canes, Bamboos, Sunerita, Phoenix

Moist Subtropical Montane Vegetation

  • It is found at the heights of 1070-1500 m in the peninsular India.
  • Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Nilgiri, Cardamom hills and Annamalai hills

The trees woods are almost soft.

Moist Temperate Montane Vegetation

  • Hills of Annamalai, Nilgiri and Palni
  • It is found at the height of more than 1500 m.
  • It is found mostly in the peninsular India.
  • Important Trees: Magnolia, Eucalyptus, Elm

Himalayan Vegetation

Eastern Himalayas Vegetation

  • Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest: This vegetation is found up to the height of 900 m. Sal, Shisham, Teak, Bamboos and Sabai grass are important trees found here.
  • Subtropical Vegetation: This vegetation is found up to the height of 900-1830 m. Oak and Chestnut are important trees found here.
  • Temperate Vegetation: It is found up to the height of 1830-2740 m. Oak, Maple, Birch, Magnolia, and Alder are important trees found here.
  • Cold Temperate Vegetation: Altitude from 4876 m and 5100 m.Small shrubs, grass, moss and flower plants are important trees found here.
  • Alpine Vegetation: Altitude from 3660 m to 4876 m. Silver fir and Juniper are important trees found here.
  • Tundra Vegetation: Altitude from 4876 m to 5100 m.  Small shrubs, grass, moss and flower are important trees found here.

Western Himalayan Vegetation

  • This type of vegetation found in the colder than the Eastern Himalayas.
  • There is the scarcity of parasitic plants and ferns in respect to the Eastern Himalayas.

Also Read | PHYSICAL DIVISIONS OF THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT | THE CLIMATE OF INDIA | DRAINAGE SYSTEM OF INDIA